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Edgar Nikitin
Edgar Nikitin

History Of Architectural Conservation (CONSERVA... !!BETTER!!


Given an introduction to conservation, preservation, and the mission, history, and resources of the National Park Service, students will be able to complete a Venn diagram, distinguish between examples, and express their opinion through a writing prompt.




History of Architectural Conservation (CONSERVA...



Brick, steel, concrete and modern construction techniques were introduced in Japan from the late 19th century together with Western style architecture; these techniques were used to build government buildings, palaces, and public buildings. Furthermore, factories, railway stations, bridges and other infrastructure and facilities were built using these new materials. These structures are a testimony of the rapid Industrialization of the country from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. This process is considered to be the first successful transfer of Western industrialization technology to a non-Western country, and therefore a significant moment in world history.The main task of the conservation architects at JACAM is to design, implement, and manage repair projects for these heritage buildings in order to safeguard them and hand them down to future generations.


Historically, buildings in Japan have been traditionally maintained and repaired throughout centuries. In addition, modern heritage conservation concepts were introduced during the late 19th century, and the first law for the conservation of architectural heritage, the Law for the conservation of Ancient Shrines and Temples, was enacted in 1897. During over 100 years of modern architectural conservation, the Japanese approach has developed into a highly specialized and methodical practice.


The aim of architectural conservation is to safeguard the cultural significance of the building, its authenticity and integrity. The original material, the structural system, and the building techniques are some of the aspects that convey the cultural significance.In order to achieve this goal, the Japanese architectural conservation method employs thorough surveys and analysis of the building to devise the best possible conservation strategy. Surveys include a careful recording of the current condition, including measurements, causes and extent of damage, previous repair works, and analysis of the traces and marks left in the building throughout its construction history. A structural analysis to evaluate the seismic performance of the building is also carried out in order to determine the need for reinforcement.


Local planning authorities are obliged to designate as conservation areas any parts of their own area that are of special architectural or historic interest, the character and appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance (ref. 1).


Local planning authorities may set up conservation area advisory committees which should consist mostly of non-local authority people who represent the interests of residents and businesses and who are able to bring expertise or understanding of the area's history and amenity.


The author, a Finnish architect and urban planner focuses the book on the European context and ranges from extreme antiquity to the present day. This easily accessible and well-written piece of introduction to the history and theory of architectural conservation is richly illustrated and an engaging read.


It firmly presents, the entire history of this architectural Conservation Movement, and traces its fluctuations in ideas and popularity, ending by questioning whether its recent international dominance can last forever.


Lime has been a great material used for architectural restoration. This book brings together a selection of the best material, revised and updated. It focuses on tracing developments of lime-based materials and more on the physical and material aspects of conservation in buildings.


The conservation of the architectural heritage has enjoyed a long course of development over the recent decades. Conservation practice is based on the values offered by the architectural heritage resources for different individuals, groups, societies, and governments. Since there is no serious and comprehensive research on the semantic values, the present study was conducted to identify all the influential semantic values in the architectural conservation process and to determine the importance of each value based on the published literature. To this end, more than 100 scientific documents, statements, and charters were analyzed and then, 40 semantic values were identified. The snowball sampling method was used to select the papers. In this study, the qualitative content analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the architectural heritage and conservation, and the quantitative content analysis was used to assess the relationship between the semantic values and conservation. According to the results of the content analysis, it can be concluded that the conservation of architectural heritage can be investigated and analyzed at three levels: people, experts, and governments, and the holistic conservation of the architectural heritage can be achieved only by the joint cooperation among all the three levels. Also, the results showed that the cultural value, economic value, historical value, and identity greatly influence the semantic conservation of the architectural heritage.


Regarding conserving the heritage to have an embodied reality for its interpretation, it has been attempted to understand and interpret the heritage in order to show how the world was like before us [3]. Conservation means protection and maintenance [4]. Architectural conservation means to conserve the valuable architectures or architectural values. Since the formation of architecture, its conservation and restoration have been considered as a principle. In the ancient Greece, damaged monuments were repaired such that, the original shape of the building was preserved. In the past, there have been several methods for repairing the buildings (mostly religious buildings) [5]. Prior to the eighteenth century, in most cases of religious buildings, conservation measures were based on the religious beliefs, and in some cases, on logical foundations where the maintenance and repair were less costly than the replacement and reconstruction [6]. Studying the experiences regarding conservation of the architectural heritage carried out prior to the nineteenth century shows that the conservation was primarily concerned with a set of measures to eliminate the erosive factors and improve the physical condition of the architectural heritage and in some cases, paying attention to the artistic, aesthetic and symbolic aspects of them. Since the nineteenth century, although the conservation theorists and architects have had different interpretations about the concept of conservation, in all the cases, more attention has been paid to the tangible and visible aspects of the heritage than its sensory and intangible categories. In the several decades ago, with the introduction of some concepts related to the environment, psychology, and human behavior in the fields of science, philosophy, and environmental sciences, perspectives on the qualitative and semantic aspects of spaces have been developed and their intangible dimensions have been considered. Such a change in the attitudes has also influenced the issue of conservation of architectural heritage, prompting the researchers and experts to consider the conservation not only as an attempt to optimize and preserve the physical aspects of the buildings, but also as a process dealing with the semantic aspects of the architectural heritage. In general, conservation is classified into two levels: conservation of the physical aspects and semantic aspects [7].


Value assessment plays a key role in all the architectural heritage-related measures; as Fielden points out, the first step in the conservation process is setting a goal and then prioritizing the values in the building to understand and convey the message of the work [8]. Today, recognition and expression of the values latent in the work are of special importance in the conservation of architectural heritage, [12, 13] and value is one of the determinants of validity and importance in the special topics related to the science of conservation [12, 14] playing a very important role in developing the conservation policies. In general, any conservation activity takes place when an object or place is valuable and therefore, decision-making on treatment and intervention in the work depends on these values [12]. Some values take precedence over the others in making a decision about the thing or aspect that needs to conserved. For example, Nara Temples in Japan are demolished and rebuilt every 20 years. As a result, it is not possible to preserve the values by conserving the materials, and preserving the craft skills and intangible values must be considered. There is a deliberately cyclic relationship between the conservation and value, in which the materials and physical aspects undergo the complete changes and are destroyed to preserve a particular type of intangible values [4].


The first step in the conservation process of the built heritage is identifying and prioritizing the existing values [15]. Regarding the prioritization of the architectural heritage values, two general cases can be considered: (1) Works have one or two values and it is very easy to prioritize them and (2) Works have multiple and varied values and prioritizing the values will become a necessity. Del and Tabrizi categorized the values into two groups: physical and semantic. In their studies, they addressed only the physical values influencing the architectural conservation [7], and the values influencing the semantic conservation were not analyzed and discussed. Therefore, the main question of the present study is as follows:


In the scientific research on the architectural heritage, one or more semantic values have been considered and studied as an effective value in the process of semantic conservation. However, in these studies, all the influential values in the semantic conservation process have not been mentioned comprehensively. Therefore, one cannot have a clear understanding of the semantic values involved in the conservation process. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is comprehensively investigating the semantic values determined by the researchers and experts in the field of the architectural heritage conservation. 041b061a72


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