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Bogdan Gusev
Bogdan Gusev

Network Programming With Go \/\/TOP\\\\



An e-book on building network applications using the Google Go programming language (golang). I wrote this a few years ago (2012), taking my old lecture notes about Java and network programming and rewriting them in Go.There were many things that did not copy across due to the comparative richness of the Java libraries, butwhere Go is applicable it generally gives cleaner and simpler code than Java.




Network Programming with Go



I am trying to learn some lower level network programming with GO. I have come across books on managing sockets and HTTP routers. Can anyone point me to resources that talk about managing network resources like interfaces, route tables, packet manipulation to influence traffic decisions, or software defined networking with GO? It seems these topics are few and far between or I'm not looking in the right spot.


A socket is a connection endpoint for communication over a network. It is designated by a name and an address and shows the way to establish communication links with the help of socket APIs over remote and local processes. A program stored or installed on the hard disk is in a dormant state. This program in execution is called a process. Most programs in execution are nothing but a collection of a number of processes, communicating and sharing information amongst each other. This is typical of any multiprocessing or multitasking environment. Although socket is not the only one, it is a way to establish communication between the processes. The processes which use sockets for communication can be from the same computing system, locally, or from a system located over a remote network. This means that sockets can be used as a communication means for both standalone, as well as, network applications.


Most programming languages provide the necessary library support for socket programming. The API supported by the library is the network standard for TCP/IP. Therefore, the underlying concept of socket programming in any language is similar.


In a typical client/server application model, the server waits for the client to start the conversation. However, do not assume that client/server always means remote communication over a network. It can very well be two processes residing in the same system locally. In such a case, a single machine acts as a network providing the communication between a client and server program that goes through layers of a TCP/IP protocol stack.


In Go, the net package provides the necessary APIs to implement socket communication between two of the topmost TCP/IP layers: application and transport. The net package provides an interface for network I/O, TCP/IP, UDP, domain name resolution, and Unix domain sockets. This package also enables low-level access to network primitives. Basic interfaces for communication are provided by functions like Dial, Listen, and Accept and the associated Conn and Listener interfaces.


As we can see, creating client/server communication using sockets in Go is actually quite simple. The standard APIs are grouped in the net package. This package also includes APIs for low-level network access. Note that, here, we have used connection-oriented transmission represented by TCP packets. There is another type of client/server interaction that is connectionless, using UDP packets. We shall see more of these in future Go network programming tutorials.


Google created the Go programming language to address issues with network scale in hyperscale environments. Since then, enterprises, such as Uber and Dropbox, have implemented Go for its speed, scalability and simplicity.


Much of Go's appeal is in its concurrency and support for cross-compilation, features that enable users to run multiple processes at once and code across different OSes and servers, according to Adam Woodbeck, senior software engineer at Barracuda Networks and author of Network Programming with Go from No Starch Press.


Woodbeck said he works with tens of thousands of devices that constantly communicate with each other and other services. Troubleshooting those devices in a traditional way would mean sifting through heaps of data to discover the root cause.


But not everyone works in large enterprises or hyperscale companies with thousands of devices. Smaller enterprises that operate at a lower scale can position themselves so they have the ability to pivot easily as they grow, Woodbeck said. For example, they could use Go for logging and metrics so they can get more visibility into their environments, where there might be less at stake and more room for curiosity.


Below is an excerpt from Chapter 13, "Logging and Metrics," from Network Programming with Go. In this chapter, Woodbeck provides examples of Go code for specific logging scenarios and explains concepts like log levels, structured logging and sampling.


Dive into key topics in network architecture implemented with the Google-backed open source Go programming language. Networking topics such as data serialization, application level protocols, character sets and encodings are discussed and demonstrated in Go. This book has been updated to the Go version 1.18 which includes modules, generics, and fuzzing along with updated and additional examples.


Beyond the fundamentals, Network Programming with Go, Second Edition covers key networking and security issues such as HTTP protocol changes, validation and templates, remote procedure call (RPC) and REST comparison, and more. Additionally, authors Ronald Petty and Jan Newmarch guide you in building and connecting to a complete web server based on Go. Along the way, use of a Go web toolkit (Gorilla) will be employed.


This book can serve as both an essential learning guide and reference on networking concepts and implementation in Go. Free source code is available on Github for this book under Creative Commons open source license.


A good primer on how to write network programs using Go programming language. Author starts by talking about TCP/IP, UDP, and other networking stuff. Once the basic theory is out of way, author builds network services using TCP and UDP. In later chapters, author talks about deployment, cloud, and observability for services.


I started learning rust some times ago and i have a project i am currently starting to work on: a small networking project for a p2p file sharing system, someone recommended me Golang but i do not really want to use something other than rust, so i would like to have an honest comparison of the 2 on the networking side.


I don't know anything about Go, but if you go for Rust, I just want to make sure that you know that Tokio recently released a Tokio tutorial: Tutorial Tokio - An asynchronous Rust runtime, because it really is a valuable resource on networking applications in Rust.


Unfortunately I'm new to Rust so I can't say anything about that, but I have quite a bit of experience with Go and I recently wrote something similar to your project (but much simpler, basically just a sub/pub service) and I'm not happy how it turned out and I'm thinking of rewriting it in Rust to see if it gets better.


He talked about introducing Rust at his company. For the first two tasks they tried with Rust, it was a great success. For the third task, it was painful. That third task was building a network service. I've built a few network services myself, mostly in C++.


Rust is my favorite programming language, and golang is far from it, but I'm always a bigger fan of picking the right tool for the job. Technically, I think golang's go routines are going to make writing a p2p networking project easier than any other language. Spinning up one go routine per connection yields incredibly readable code. Maybe Rust's new async IO will help (I haven't used it), but with my current understanding, I'd choose golang.


I had just heard of node.js which was new on the scene at the time. I thought it was a crazy idea to run a stupid scripting language like Javascript for anything that required performance. Amazingly I was wrong, my node.js implementation of the same thing was only a little slower than the Go one overall. But it's random jitters and extreme stalls were a lot less. We went with node.js and life was good. Which I attributed not only to the new high performance V8 JIT run times but also to it's event driven programming model that did not waste time on thrashing between threads. But again I don't know for sure.


That said, I am also gathering information about the applicability of Rust on networking. As Go appears as an alternative, after I have a good foundation of Rust I will evaluate also Go.Nonetheless, I would like to share my current understanding. The usage of Rust or Go (or even other languages) is also bound by what you understand as networking. Go appears to be quite suited to webservices, including all the things for that on the language and standard library. Strength on this area should not come as a suprise, as Go was originally designed to solve Google`s problem.Rust has some interesting crates on this area, but I still did not have time to evaluate them thoroughly (currently reading the book).On other areas of networking, like lower layered protocols, binary protocols, custom protocols the control of Rust seems to shine. My understanding is that Go would not be a viable alternative here.


One core and unique advantage of Rust on networking is not to discard: inherent network security. That may not be of interest if your service is not big enough to be a target. But, hey, you do want to grow, right? So why not have it out of the box?


I've worked with Go in the past and the language feels somewhat like C but with garbage collection and light-weight threads. As such, it works well for low-level network operations and people have implemented all sorts of network protocols in Go.


Despite being very new to Rust when I did that last year it worked a treat soon enough and has worked reliably ever since. Performance is just fine of course and I don't see any high latency jitters as I have seen with Go in the past. 041b061a72


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