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Edgar Nikitin
Edgar Nikitin

Raw Mature

Winter squash "type butternut" is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash "type butternut" (variety CosmoF1) in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene) in mg.100 g-1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg), followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg), and immature fruits (18.82 mg). Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis) and α-carotene (34.1%). Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3%) and mature (34.5%) fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04) vs. raw pulp (0.96).

raw mature

The PG era came into being on June 22, 2008, after two much more mature and highly regarded eras being the beloved Attitude era and the highly regarded Ruthless Aggression era. These two eras were full of hardcore matches with blood, barb wire, mature love storylines and profanity. The Superstar who best personifies the eras and most importantly the attitude of the eras is Stone Cold Steve Austin giving anyone and everyone the middle finger. It was truly a golden age of pro wrestling.

This will be an interesting change to see how quickly Raw will change its tone. Also some wrestlers who have always leaned towards a more mature tone like Kevin Owens may not want to get drafted to SmackDown. On the opposite side, wrestlers who have a much more family-friendly persona may not want to work on Raw as they may think it will hurt their image if they are asked to curse in a promo for example. It will be interesting to see if the different ratings between the shows will cause issues with wrestlers. It could also create very lopsided programming with everyone only wanting to watch Raw or SmackDown because of the TV-14 vs. PG rating.

Phytochemicals have long demonstrated anti-obesity properties in adipocytes. Their ability, however, to induce browning in white adipose tissue is only beginning to emerge. We have recently established thatthe white adipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1, is capable of beiging under beta-adrenergic conditions. Herein, we investigated whether the plant steroid guggulsterone (GS), studied for its antiobesity and antilipidemiceffects, can induce beiging in 3T3-L1s. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated using established protocols supplemented with rosiglitazone and thyroid hormone. Direct effects of GS were measured by treating mature 3T3-L1 cells for 24 hours. Indirect effects were measured by treating mature 3T3-L1 cells with conditioned media from GS-treated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Directtreatment of 3T3-L1s with GS resulted in increased lipolysis, increased mitochondrial activity (11%), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1a) levels by 250%. 3T3-L1s also demonstrated an increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by 200% and beige marker, Tbox protein 1 (TBX1) by 80%compared to untreated control cells. Furthermore, this was accompanied by increased levels of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) and its downstream target iodothyronine deiodinase 2 (DIO2). Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with GS induced a 60% increase incatecholamine release into the media. 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased the expression of DIO2 and UCP1 following 24 hours of incubation with conditioned media obtained from macrophages. Results from this study demonstrate that GS can potentially induce beiging in white adipose tissue through two distinct mechanisms: (1) direct signaling through the TGR5-cAMP-DIO2 pathway and (2) indirectly through stimulating catecholamine release from macrophages. Thus, our studies demonstrate that GS may improve the metabolic capacity of adipose tissue thereby counteracting the effects of obesity. 041b061a72


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