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Questions and Answers

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Edgar Nikitin
Edgar Nikitin

Tennis Elbow Manager Registration Key

The technical name for tennis elbow is "lateral epicondylitis". This term refers to an inflammation that is occurring near a small point or projection of the upper arm bone (humerus) just above the elbow joint on the outer side of the arm. However, pain can also occur in the forearm and wrist.

Tennis Elbow Manager Registration Key

The pain from tennis elbow comes mainly from injured or damaged tendons near the elbow. Tendons are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. When repeatedly stressed or overused, tendons can become inflamed and degenerate. This results in a painful condition called tendinopathy, the medical term for disorder of a tendon. Tennis elbow is simply a specific type of tendinopathy that occurs in a particular part of the elbow.

Damaged tendons can occur on either side of the elbow. When it happens on the outside of the elbow, which is most common, it is called tennis elbow. When it happens on the inside, it is called "medial epicondylitis" or "golfer's elbow."

The development of tennis elbow is associated with repeated contraction of the forearm muscles. These muscles control hand and wrist movements. They are attached to tendons that connect them to only two small points of bone just above the elbow, one on the outer side, the other on the inner side.

In a medical examination, pain experienced in any three of these movements can indicate the possibility of tennis elbow. Usually there is no outward sign of redness or swelling. Most often tennis elbow affects only one arm, usually the arm that does most at work.

Tennis elbow can appear in many different ways. Some people get symptoms gradually after doing the same type of work for several years. Others get it suddenly, soon after they start doing a new type of work. Sometimes it can develop immediately following a single severe muscle exertion or after an elbow becomes injured. In other cases, tennis elbow occurs for no obvious reason.

Rest from the activities that cause elbow pain is the most important treatment for tennis elbow. This kind of disorder is often called "self-limiting" because it eventually disappears when people change or avoid activities that cause elbow pain. Watchful waiting rather than active treatment and intervention is fairly effective in pain reduction in some patients. Physicians sometimes give injections to reduce inflammation and speed healing. This treatment usually works, but it cannot be used repeatedly. Elbow bracing and support pads may also be worn for short term pain relief.

Finding out what workplace activity was associated with a specific case of tennis elbow is important. Damage to the arms and elbows can become chronic if the activity causing the condition is not changed or discontinued.

Tasks associated with tennis elbow should be identified and modified to reduce the risk of serious injury. Of greatest concern is the use of fingers, wrists, and forearms in repetitive work involving forceful movement, awkward postures, and lack of rest. Avoid tasks that place excessive force, stress, or strain on muscles of the forearm.

However, keeping in mind that tennis elbow is just one of several different disorders caused by repetitive work is important. Prevention programs cannot be effective if they deal with only one part of the arm and neglect the hands, wrists, shoulders, neck or back. Effective prevention must deal with all disorders caused by repetitive work and the inappropriate demands on muscles and tendons.

In a single-blind, randomized, clinical study, Kazemi and colleagues (2010) compared local corticosteroid with autologous blood injections for the short-term treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy. A total of 60 patients aged 27 to 64 years with a new episode of tennis elbow were recruited -- 30 patients were randomized to methylprednisolone and 30 to autologous blood group over 1 year. Severity of pain within last 24 hours; limb function; pain and strength in maximum grip; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand quick questionnaire (Quick DASH) scores; modified Nirschl scores; and pressure pain threshold were evaluated before injection and at 4 and 8 weeks after injection. Data wer analyzed with the chi and t test. Within-group analyses showed better results for autologous blood (all p values

In an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled comparative study, Branson and associates (2017) compared 3 different ultrasound (US)-guided injections for chronic tennis elbow. A total of 44 patients with clinically diagnosed tennis elbow, confirmed by Doppler US, received under US guidance, a single corticosteroid injection (n = 14), or 2 injections (separated by 4 weeks) of either autologous blood (n = 14) or polidocanol (n = 16). Clinical and US examination was performed at baseline, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Complete recovery or much improvement was greater for corticosteroid injection than autologous blood and polidocanol at 4 weeks (p

For example, a product-oriented tennis racquet maker pursues sales by adding a new technology to its frames that adds power, increases control or reduces shock to the elbow. A sales-oriented racquet seller signs a hot professional tennis player as an endorser, uses wild cosmetics on its frames, offers special deals and creates ads with sexy images and graphics.


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