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Catholic Daily Quotes

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Oliver Lee
Oliver Lee

The Raw Youth Or The Adolescent

The novel chronicles the life of 19-year-old intellectual, Arkady Dolgoruky, illegitimate child of the controversial and womanizing landowner Versilov. A focus of the novel is the recurring conflict between father and son, particularly in ideology, which represents the battles between the conventional "old" way of thinking in the 1840s and the new nihilistic point of view of the youth of 1860s Russia. The young of Arkady's time embraced a very negative opinion of Russian culture in contrast to Western or European culture.

The Raw Youth or The Adolescent

Many side effects of smartphone addiction have been reported, such as a lack of sleep, obesity, and poor concentration. However, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and smartphone addiction has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between physical activity and smartphone addiction among 53,534 Korean adolescents using raw data from the 16th (2020) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The dependent variables were the general user group, potential risk user group, and high-risk user group for smartphone addiction. The independent variables were moderate PA (over 5 days per week), vigorous PA (over 3 days per week), and strength exercise (over 3 days per week). Sex, body mass index (BMI), school grade, academic achievement, sleep satisfaction, depression, loneliness, and stress were selected as confounding variables. A complex sample logistic regression analysis was performed. Potential smartphone addiction risk users showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.423 (p

The depth of our research rooted us in the collective knowledge necessary to develop the BYAEP Framework. The following section provides a brief review of adolescence as a stage of life and some of the latest findings about the brains of adolescents. Both topics help to elucidate the necessity of addressing the specific needs of youth in our work and the ways in which youth arts development programs are ideally suited to address these needs.

The cross-sectional research cited above points to a number of factors that may be important for examining the association between adolescent mental health and COVID-19 longitudinally. Namely age, gender, media exposure, family conflict, changes to schooling, adherence to restrictions, and levels of social connection have all been implicated as potential moderators within the existing research. As previous research has demonstrated that adolescents were particularly concerned about feeling socially disconnected from their friends, and that COVID-19 related worries along with less time on schooling were significantly associated with depression cross-sectionally (Ellis et al. 2020), it is possible that social connectedness, COVID-19 related concerns, and disruptions to schooling may predict change from pre-pandemic to intra-pandemic levels of depression, anxiety and life satisfaction. Further, as a prior two-wave study found that increased exposure to media reports about COVID-19 was significantly associated with increases in anxiety and depression, whereas complying with the stay at home rules was protective (Wang et al. 2020), it is important to examine these associations longitudinally. Considering the substantial amount of time adolescents spend on social media, it may also be important to examine the effect of exposure to COVID-19 related media reports via social media, particularly as prior has found that increased social media use during the pandemic was associated with increased adolescent depression and anxiety (Ellis et al. 2020).

Taken together, the above research provides consistent evidence that the COVID-19 crisis may be having a significant impact on the psychological health of adolescents across the globe. However, all of these studies have relied on respondents indicating the perceived impact of COVID-19 on their current mental health. Only longitudinal studies that include a baseline measure before COVID-19 can truly detect changes in mental health related to the pandemic, although there has been no such research to date. To address this gap, the primary purpose of the current research was to determine the effect of the pandemic and the government-imposed restrictions associated with the response to COVID-19 on the emotional health of adolescents. The first aim was to identify which factors were viewed by adolescents as producing the greatest COVID-19 related distress. It was hypothesized that not being able to see and spend time with friends, and concerns about moving to online learning, would cause adolescents the most distress. The second aim was to prospectively investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in adolescent anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. It was anticipated that from T1 (pre-pandemic) to T2 (during the pandemic) adolescents would report an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression, and a decrease in overall life satisfaction. The third aim was to ascertain which factors during the pandemic served to decrease or increase the risk of experiencing adjustment difficulties two months after the pandemic began and whether there were any age or sex differences evident. It was predicted that disruptions to schooling, COVID-19 related distress, family conflict, and frequent media exposure during the pandemic, would serve to increase the risk of mental health problems, whereas feeling socially connected and adhering to COVID-19 related restrictions during the lockdown would decrease the risk of mental health problems two months into the pandemic. As depression and anxiety are more prevalent in girls than in boys, it was expected that any changes in mental health symptoms from T1 to T2 would be stronger in girls compared to boys, and if the predicted increases in mental health problems from T1 to T2 are simply due to developmental maturation, it was expected older adolescents would report greater increases in symptoms of depression and anxiety, and greater decreases in life satisfaction, than younger adolescents.

At the time T2 data was collected, laws in Australia were in place to help minimize the spread of COVID-19. Residents of the state New South Wales were asked to stay at home unless they were going to work or school, obtaining food or other essential goods and services, exercising, or seeking medical care. To assess adherence to this stay-at-home directive, adolescents were asked how often they had left their home for reasons other than those listed above, responding on a 5-point scale from 0 (I have only left my home for the reasons listed above) to 4 (more than 10 times).

The parents of all adolescents currently enrolled in the RAW Project were sent information about the COVID-19 study and a link to the T2 online survey. Parents who consented to their child participating, then shared the link with their child who assented online prior to beginning the survey. Participants were asked to complete the survey within two weeks of receiving the initial email, after which the survey was closed. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The T1 data used for the current study was collected online throughout 2019 as part of the larger RAW Project (thus prior to the COVID-19 pandemic), and the T2 data was collected between May 5th and May 14th 2020, approximately two months after the Australian government had imposed the stay-at-home orders and schools had moved to online learning.

Sex of the youth significantly moderated the change scores in depressive symptoms, with results indicating that although there were significant increases in depressive symptoms from T1 to T2 for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced in girls. This result was replicated for changes in anxiety, with girls again showing the largest increases in symptoms from T1 to T2. Finally, sex significantly moderated the change in life satisfaction from T1 to T2 with girls showing the greatest decrease.

Levels of distress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic significantly moderated change scores in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and life satisfaction from T1 to T2. Specifically, adolescents with high and moderate levels of COVID-19 related distress experienced significantly greater increases in anxiety and depressive symptoms, and significantly greater decreases in life satisfaction, over time than those with low levels of COVID-19 related distress.

The pre-pandemic to intra-pandemic increase in depressive symptoms and anxiety, and decrease in life satisfaction found in the current study is generally consistent with previous retrospective and cross-sectional studies in both adult and adolescent samples, which have reported perceived increases in depression, anxiety, and loneliness due to the effects of COVID-19 (Chen et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2020; Ellis et al. 2020). The current study strengthens and builds upon this literature by demonstrating that living with the restrictions and concerns surrounding COVID-19 are related to not only increases in emotional distress but also with decreases in life satisfaction. More importantly, the prospective collection of these data allows stronger conclusions to be drawn, that go beyond the perceived attributions of participants. Interestingly, while significant decrements in adolescent mental health were demonstrated prospectively, the size of these effects were quite modest, with changes ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 standard deviations. Clearly a large proportion of adolescents are coping well with the impact of the pandemic, at least in the early stages, and most are showing minimal negative impact. 041b061a72


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