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Joseph Howard
Joseph Howard

Non-missing Blank Found In Data File At Record M Plus Software 13



A9. When you file your 2021 tax return, your tax preparation software or the line 30 worksheet found in the 2021 Form 1040 and Form 1040-SR Instructions can help you figure your Recovery Rebate Credit amount. You will need to know the amount of your third Economic Impact Payment and any plus-up payments. Log into your Online Account to look up these amount(s) or you may also refer to the Notice 1444-C, Your Third Economic Impact Payment. In early 2022, we'll send Letter 6475 confirming the total amount of the third Economic Impact Payment and any plus-up payments you received for tax year 2021.




non-missing blank found in data file at record m plus software 13



Within the field of record linkage, numerous data cleaning and standardisation techniques are employed to ensure the highest quality of links. While these facilities are common in record linkage software packages and are regularly deployed across record linkage units, little work has been published demonstrating the impact of data cleaning on linkage quality.


A nickname file, containing common nicknames and diminutive names for given names can be used to translate forenames to a common value. Using a nickname lookup, a person recorded as Bill on one dataset and William on another could be given the same first name, potentially bringing these records together [18].


These techniques encapsulate those found in linkage software packages or in use by dedicated linkage units in Australia during our environmental scan. All techniques listed here were either in use or under consideration by at least one institution conducting linkage in Australia, and all institutions asked used at least one of these techniques to clean their data.


Despite its widespread availability in linkage software packages, its use by numerous linkage groups, and its recognition as a key step in the record linkage process, the record linkage literature has not extensively explored data cleaning in its own right. Particular methods of cleaning data variables have been evaluated previously. Churches et al. [25] compared rule based methods of name and address standardisation to methods based on probabilistic models, finding more accurate address information when cleaned using probabilistic models. Wilson [36] compared phonetic algorithms and hand curated mappings on a genealogical database, finding the hand-curated mappings more appropriate for name matching. To our knowledge there has been no systematic investigation of the extent to which data cleaning improves linkage quality, or which techniques are most effective.


Each record in the dataset comprised the following data items: surname, first name, sex, date of birth and postcode. Records in each dataset were generated with errors typically found in administrative data. Ascertaining representative rates of different types of errors such as duplications, omissions, phonetic alterations and lexical errors involved abstracting errors manually from a number of real world datasets and extrapolating these to the artificial data. Real world errors were applied to the synthetic data using user-specified parameters which are part of the Febrl data generator. Errors in the final dataset included the use of equivalent names, phonetic spellings, hyphenated names, first and last name reversals, change of surname, partial matches, typographical errors, incomplete or inaccurate addresses (postcode only) and change of address (postcode only). As Table 2 demonstrates, the synthetic datasets were highly representative of the source population.


A nickname lookup table was developed based on similar nickname lookup tables found in linkage packages and as used by Australian linkage units. A sex imputation table was developed by examining the frequency of each given name in the data files and calculating the probability of the person being male or female. A record with a missing sex value was then given the most common gender value for this name.


BigMatch, developed by the US Bureau of Census [42] was used as the linkage engine for the analysis. BigMatch was chosen as it is fast, can handle large volumes, has a transparent linkage process based on probabilistic methods, and importantly, does not contain any automatic inbuilt data cleaning. The software had previously been evaluated and found to perform well against other linkage software packages [38].


Through the use of multiple representative datasets and the analysis of both linkage quality and individual transformations, these results seem robust. Measuring the effect of data cleaning in linkage is complex, as there are a multitude of parameters which can be altered that could affect the outcome of linkage quality. A potential concern is that some untested threshold value or other linkage parameter changes could drastically change these results. However, when analysed on their own, individual variables showed decreased predictive ability. If we accept that record linkage variables are independent (something which is an assumption of probabilistic record linkage) then it seems unlikely that any changes to linkage parameters will lead to linkage quality greater than that found in uncleaned data. On the other hand, the independence of variables used in linkage is often questionable, in which case the lower predictive ability of the individual variables is at the very least supportive of our conclusion.


Binary formats use byte values that in text files are interpreted asspecial control functions, such as carriage return and line feed. Thus,data in binary formats should not be included in syntax files or readfrom data files with variable-length records, such as ordinary textfiles. They may be read from or written to data files with fixed-lengthrecords. See FILE HANDLE, for information on working withfixed-length records.


DATAFILE ATTRIBUTE adds, modifies, or removes user-definedattributes associated with the active dataset. Custom data fileattributes are not interpreted by PSPP, but they are saved as part ofsystem files and may be used by other software that reads them.


The STARTS subcommand is required. Specify a range of columns, usingliteral numbers or numeric variable names. This range specifies thecolumns on the first line that are used to contain groups of data. Theending column is optional. If it is not specified, then the recordwidth of the input file is used. For the inline file (see BEGIN DATA) this is 80 columns; for a file with fixed record widths it is therecord width; for other files it is 1024 characters by default.


The GET DATA command with TYPE=TXT and ARRANGEMENT=FIXED reads inputdata from text files in fixed format, where each field is located inparticular fixed column positions within records of a case. Itscapabilities are similar to those of DATA LIST FIXED (see DATA LIST FIXED), with a few enhancements.


VARIABLE ATTRIBUTE adds, modifies, or removes user-definedattributes associated with variables in the active dataset. Customvariable attributes are not interpreted by PSPP, but they are saved aspart of system files and may be used by other software that readsthem.


In this data dep_time can be non-missing and arr_delay missing but arr_time not missing.Some further research found that these rows correspond to diverted flights.The BTS database that is the source for the flights table contains additional information for diverted flights that is not included in the nycflights13 data.The source contains a column DivArrDelay with the description:


The DHS Program uses a software package, CSPro, to process its surveys. CSPro is developed by the US Bureau of the Census, ICF, and SerPro SA with funding from USAID. CSPro is specifically designed to meet the data processing needs of complex surveys such as DHS, and one of its key features is its ability to handle hierarchical files. CSPro is used in The DHS Program in all steps of data processing with no need for another package or computer language. All steps, from entering/capturing the data to the production of statistics and tables published in DHS final reports, are performed with CSPro. In addition, CSPro provides a mechanism to export data to the statistical packages Stata, SPSS, SAS and R.


The major disadvantage is that only CSPro easily handles hierarchical data. Most analysis software does not support hierarchical data, or at least not simply, so The DHS Program produces a set of exported datasets from the CSPro versions of the DHS recode files with different units of analysis that are convenient for use in statistical software such as Stata, SPSS, SAS and R.


The list of datasets available for each survey can be found on The DHS Program website at -datasets.cfm, or through The DHS Program API using the datasets call, e.g. =html&perpage=1000. The API call can be filtered by country, survey, survey type, file format, or dataset type (file type). See -datasets.cfm for more information on using the API datasets call.


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